Makalah-20 THE LANGUAGE OF MISSION Maret 19, 2013Posted by wawasanislam in Prosiding Seminar Internasional PAI-Berkarakter 2013.
By DR. Mellyarti Syarif, M.Pd
The current problems of people in all around the world is also mission problem is not possible to be faced traditional and Language which have been eliminated of mission Language used by outstanding success language of prophet in inviting humen being to truth. In balaghah science there are some sighat ful`amar used in having Language such us prayer, irsyad(training), and other. Allah warns in giving correct mission Language by using tuition and instruction pattern and suitable so that can produce new habit becomes the aims of mission.
He correct mission language as follows : 1) Qaulan Ma`rufa, have feasible meaning and according to religion demand, closing the opportunity happened is worthless,petteshness, the larger submitted language, correct, lenient, objective and is not excessive. 2) Qaulan Kariman have softly utterance meaning, glory, and useful by keeping on civil law,polite, and calm 3) Qaulan Maisuran have simple language meaning and understandable, easy, and having significance expectation value as a heart healing, not circumvent, simple, and easy to accepted spontaneously, 4) Qaulan Layina have meaning of friendliness, respect, smooth, persuasive and polite 5) Qaulan Balighan means capability in using language fluently to audient and inspire our soul 6) Qaulan Sadidan means that hones in taking oriented to the truth, consistent, and fsr from deviate and abuse the successfulness of clergy in expressing their mission determined by the mission language used.
In facing the global era of language required one of important appliance to accomplish the essential problem. In holy Qur`an there are some singhat fi`il amr in using the language to other. In science the balaghah amar have separate meaning such as ; do`a (prayer), irsyad (training), iltimimas (bargain), tamanni (inaccessible expectation), takhyir (election), taswiyah (peaceful),ta`jiz (weaking the talking opponents), tahdid (threath) and ibahah (ability).
In this case, text of amr consists of six sentence of editor. قولوا قولا Having irsyad meaning, Allah ordered human being ti give the training to others by using correct languange in facing our different audient and different background. The language used can give guide from Allah SWT. The language used to give the instruction shall be as follows:
a. Qaulan Ma`rufan
Etymologically, the word of معروفا is isim maf`ul from root word: عرف,يعرف,عرفة that means to recognize/ knowing. In terminology :
قولا معروفا : قولا جميلا حسنا معروفا الى الخير لا مكر فيه ولا فحش ولا محالفة لحدودالله
Meaning : A beautiful utterance, good and properly for kindness aim, pro-
hibit the crime, immorality and do not interfere from the rule of
The meaning for the word mentioned above stated that respect people by giving training to other to inform by using feasible language, as according to religion manual and close the opportunity of happening the miss conduct or worthless cause miscommunication. The feasible statement is far from criminal elements and immorality which under cover at the opposite of kindly pretender Qaulan Ma`rufan submitted barely, precese and very reasonable, not joking or excessive.
In Holy Qur`an the sentence of Qaulan Ma`rufan found in four locations first in article 235 Al-Baqarah (02/235), that is :
٢٣٥. وَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُم بِهِ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ النِّسَاء أَوْ أَكْنَنتُمْ فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ عَلِمَ اللّهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرّاً إِلاَّ أَن تَقُولُواْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفاً وَلاَ تَعْزِمُواْ عُقْدَةَ النِّكَاحِ حَتَّىَ يَبْلُغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
Meaning: And there is no yours sin propose marriage for women by insinuation or you conceal (your desire to marry them) inwardly Allah knows that you will say them, in the meantime don`t you perform a promise to marry them in secret, except simply saying (to them) a ma`ruf utterance. And don`t you `azam (obstinate) for doing marry, before finishing their reschedule term and know that Allah know what there is in your heart; hence fearing to hem and know that Allah is the most merciful and gracious.
Second, the article of 5 Al-An-Nisa (04/92), that is :
Meaning: And don`t you deliver a matter to people who his mind is in inferfect, (their property under your power) created by Allah as life priciple. Give expense them and clothes (from earnings of the property ) and say to them highly regarded utterance.
Third, the article of 8 An-Nisa that is :
Meaning :And if the divison time undergo be attended by consanguainity, pauper and orphan hence giving them from that belongings (sufficiently) and say to them highly regarded utterance.
Fourth, the article of 32 Al-Ahzab, that is:
Meaning : His prophet wife, you all are different with other, if you are godly. Hence don`t godlly bow in conversing so that have a mind whose the disease in their heart, and say highly regarded utterance.
Considering asbab al-nuzul the related article mentioned above so, we know that all article come from in Medina, the society have more and more with complex community. If concerning from this aspect, thus the selection of feasible word in expressing Islam religion psychology is very required.While if we concerning from the contens of the context mentioned above, so a related article bring about femele and orphan and poor people. Like wise in Al-Anisa of article 9 (04/92) refers to orphan, while in article of 32 from Al- Ahzab (33/90) that is demand of prophet`s wive in otder to talk naturally.Similarly, when Al-Qur`an said about polite behavior, such as :the problem of orphan, women and qaul word matched with ma`rufan . It showed that the word of ma`ruf means the useful discussion, giving knowledge, pouring idea, resolving our thinking. While for weak people if not capable asisst materially, at least can give the psychological aid.
b. Qaulan Katiman
Pronounced كريما taken from كرم يكرم كرما كرمة كرامة meaning to submit easily and better or have a meaning لاْنواع الخير و الشرف والفضائل والحامع that is : various gathering of kindliness, dignity and also axcess. While in terminology of the sentence قولا كريما is خير و تعظيم قولا دجميلا لينا طيبا حسنا وتر that is : admirable utterance, soft, good and useful wit taking care of respectfully manner, dignity and calmness.
The meaning mentioned above used an understandable Launguage, heaving a meaning of, grand and glory. It was dine in the effort of taking care in order not to hurt the oppent`s self-regard or honor. The way was done in order the mission material submitted can touch someone`s heartstrings. While a worthwhile word to braid an accurated communications with people is older than us. Usually the older one is very thin-skinned. Hence, qaulan kariman is a articulation which is oriented to dialect provided with respect and dignity to talking opponent. The aims of mission in this case are the older people.
The sentence of Qaulan Kariman there are once in Holly Qur`an, that is the article of 23 al-Isra (17/50), that is :
Meaning : And you have commanded in order not to curtsey beside Him and you should do a kindness to your parent as well as possible. If one of them or the both older in your treatment, hence occasionally don`t you tell to both the utterance “ah” and don`t you snap them and say to the admirable word.
The sentence mentioned above giving the command about the obligation of human being to Allah Swt for the religious service is only to him. The obligation was accompanied by order of doing a kindness to our parent. The command for doing a kindness to our parents at the same time provided with clarification the words is not looking down, raging and exactly commanded to use admirable word when talking to our parent.
The election of ”kariman” word (glory) showed the importantly to do a kindness to parents,especially in choosing the admirable words, as one of the way to respect them. The deed is very human (fitrah) because they have taken care, educate and grow us since we werw youger up to be adult (Qs. Lukman :14 (31/57). The meaning consisted of the study above is that doing a kindness to parent represent admirable duty at the same time as second best doctrine off the obligation that have been taken to Allah Swt. But a kindliness conducted to both during it is not opposed against the order which have been specifed by nash, however nor lessen our respect to them by associating with them well.
The usage of Qaulan Kariman which only once found in the al-Qur`an indicated that to talk with our parents have to differ with our style talking with others. It is not allowable to talk violently to other, however talking to our parents is not only command to use a Honorable Language, good attitude, even have to occupy them to the respectful position by high respect (QS.Al-Isra :24 (17/50).
c.. Qaulan matsuran
From the aspect of sematics the word of ميسورا is isim maf`ul taken from root word of يسر يسير يسرا meaning اليل و الانقياد ضد المعسور that is easy to comprehended and clear. From the terminology is a light word dialect, easy to understood, content of the expectancy to beautiful prospect as bargainer and coolant to our talking opponent`s feeling.
The Emphasis to the meaning mentioned above is that submitted mission to audients through the understandable Launguage, simple and clear. For the target of mission like this, the mission items don`t not require for long time not complicated. In this case the massage of the mission submitted is very simple and can be accepted spontaneously, not requiring elementary and circumstantial idea. In Holly Al-Qur`an the sentence like this found at al-Isra 28, that is:
Meaning : And if you look away from them to get desired blessing from your Allah hence tell to them proper utterance.
Mustafa Al- Maraghi in his interpretation gave the meaning easily and gentle. This sentence located after there is command in order to give the rights (help) to close relative, and voyager, and poor people and the command of prohibition to be extravagant, because the extravagant behavior is devil`s deed. Its generally, people will ask the help to their closer relative firs compared to others, What a sorrowful, if our expected family to assist exactly reciprocate it with unkind utterance more than anything else voyager and poor people get unkind utterance like that will make their heart hurt deeply.
As asbab al nuzul, the sentence is the case that happened when people from Muzainah ask an animal vehicle to Prophet will be used to battle in the way of Allah (fisabilillah). Prophet replied “ I do not get an animal anymore for you”. Hearing the Prophet answer, the people look away by getting hard tears and sorrowful because they predicated that Prophet angry to him. So that do not give him a facility to battle, hence Allah showed prophet by downing wards this article.
This sentence قولا ميسورا gave a picture that when friend ask facility to fight for Islam, non for the sake of person interest, but the disappointment that he has got, in answering the disappointed like that and then Allah gave paints to Prophet in order not to refuse their request cruelly, more than anything else one who is only solely for fulfilling his personal requirement. The article above in line with article of 10 in al-Dhuha (93/11), that is in order not to raise a hand and rage to others. Thereby we can conclude that using the sentence of qaulan maisuran is one of the Holly Al-Qur`an term in leading to do the method of mission by using simple language, easy to be understood and reliave feeling.
d. Qaulan Latyinan
The word of لينينا taken from root word of لان يلين لينا ليانا و لينة That means “ friendly or gentle”. Or ضد الخشونة that ia antonym, that means harsh. In term aspect, qulan laiyinan is a phrase with syimpathetic sentence, simple, and understandable and leave an impression in our as well as useful.
To the meaning mentioned above there are existence of persuasive element in submitting items of mission to talking opponent. The way likes this as if bringing the positive image to talking opponent, so that he pays attention and listening carefully and seriously. The impression father in usage of this sentence was directed to one whom more having an effect in a society community. The sentence of laiyinan in al-Qur`an found by Thaha letter : 44 (20/45), as follow
Meaning : Consequently, you both should tell to him with gentle words, hopefully the remember or fear
The article mentioned above indicate to prophet Moses an Harun, to meet the king of Fir`aun in the effort submitting the truth of Allah sentence, because the behavior in society have really abysmal boundary. This sentence also at the same time give the motivation to Moses and harun, so that both can face the cruel people and pitiless. For that reason Allah guarantees both in order not to warry because Allah resides in eith both “ I hear and se” (QS. Thaha : 46 (20/45). With the existence of Allah`s guarantee, hence Moses and harun go tu inform their mission to Fir`aun by using gentle Language. Even Allah can force His desire to command his prophet to say to the brutal king by hard instructive, but that thing is not the best way in reahing the result to some one, more than anything else to one who has plenipotentiary. That means Allah order Moses and Harun in order to be able to submit Islam teaching to brutal king by gentle language. Likely this is a method of effective mission of al-hasanah wa maw`izhah in bringing Islam to this people. Bringing about with gentle, emotionless, scorn and flatter the impressive bring effective communications in dialoging, of course will much more effective if this method is utilized to weak people indeed.
e. Qaulan Balighan
In etymological the word of بليغا taken from بلغ يبلغ بلوغا بليغا plural form of بليغا that mean صارا او كان فصيحا that is : the fluent utterance until to intended. Or interpreted by meaning informed, that is the word have been informed to others, hence it will plant in his heart as expressed by Zamaksyari : يسر يسير يسرا قولا بليغا : هو قول مؤثر فى قلوب يغتم به اعتماما
The impressionable utterance planted into the heart that closed before until generate circumstantial awareness. For father Sayyid Qutb said that qaulan balighan is the words generate the inspirations for the sense directly and stick into the heart immediately.
The meaning of the sentence above giving the ponted focus to the word “ informed” which is correlative by “impressionable” Both as if depend on the method of mauizhah in the form of qaulan balighan, that is the expression witch informed as according to the intention and give a circumstantial impression in the sense for our talking oppenent. This form disclosure the darkness closing ovar the heart and will accept the truth informed to them.
The word of Qaulan Balighan was found in al-Nisa letter : 63 (04/92), that is :
Meaning : They are people that Allah knows what in their heart. In consequence look away for you from them. And give them the Lesson. And tell to them suggestible word.
This term is used in talking or informing the massage to other by synchronized word and accepted well by talking opponent. The article describes the behavior of hypocrite when they ask to obey Allah Swt`s law. But, they block the other way in order to obey with Islam philosophy. It is their behavior typology embraced the disobey conduct, if they have got grief and accident caused by their deed and so they come into Allah to ask the protection or aid, in facing the society behavior like this is really required to be usid this method that is giving a teaching and warning by using synchronized statement inro their bottom heart. The hypocrisy is riskier than infidelity who clearly on his unfaithfulness against Islam.
The beckground of informed the article when happened the dispute between the man of Anshar with Jew man. To solve this problem, the man of Jew offer the solutation must be accomplished by Prophet Muhammad Saw as a judge, because he was sure that the Prophet will be able to ebforee the justice. But the man of Anshar rejected that, because he felt in the position of getting wrong. He claim to enforce Jewish in order to solve this problem to Ka`ab bin Asyaf as migician. The occurrence background informed of Q.S al-Nisa` article of 60 and 63 have mentioned above. Referring to the problem above can be seen that the man of Anshar run from the rule away of religion and looks for others strategy to get the personal advantage by loosing other. That`s the way in facing the hypocrisy required to balance him by using fully meaning utterance sharp and touch their feeling in order their poor provocation can be stopped, so that is not influence to other.
The article 63 of an-Nisa mentioned above having relevance with previous sentence and after with especial theme of “governance foundation” (al-Nisa`: 58-70), that is including the nature of trust, command to obey the leader, refer to Allah law, be careful with hypocrisy people. Hence, this form is very required by a leader especially in facing of hypocrisy clan.
Considering to this method form of mawizhah al-hasanah mission through qaulan balighan likely is very relevant with hypocrite typology. For that reason it was needed the communications which can touch their sense and inspire their soul properly. The language used is the impressive language and synchronized statement to their heart. Because the hypocrisy soul in their heart there are many tell untruths, betrayal, and so on. If their soul do not touch correctly and clearly, hence it is difficult to subdue them. Qaulan balighan sentence is al-Qur`an language style with aim touch the harsh and abusive soul, to acceptable soul of the truth and finally can change the behavior people to follow the way of Allah under the truth authorize.
F. Qaulan Sadidan
From semantic evaluation, the word of سديدا taken form root word of (سد يسد سديدا ) meaning (اغلاق الخلل وردم الثلم ) That is closing over ignominy and improve it or (الصواب من القول) All real correct word. In terminology, sadidan is the sentence of لااله الا الله with have meaning الصدق the trutful utterance . Or interpret it with الصواب و كل الحق that is : a real correct utterance and everything is rights. Farther Muhammad Hasan al-Hamsyi, formulating it as follows :
صادقا يرد به الوصول الى الحق مستقيما لا اعواج فيه ولا خراف قولا
Meaning :The downright word with the orientation in reacting the truth, consistent without deviation and misconduct.
In holly Qur`an Allah Swt informed them in two letter, that is article 9 in an-Nisa` and article 70 in al-Ahzab letter
Article 9 in an-Nisa`
Meaning: And shall fear to Allah for people who leave behind us the feeble children, which they worry to their walfare. On That account they shall be godly to Allah and they shall say real correct word.
Al-Ahzab letter article 70
Meaning : Hi religious people, be godly of you to Allah and tell real correct word
The theme expressed by al-Qur`an in an-Nisa`, article 9 is concerning with orphan`s property that is the heritage rights, prohibition in eating the heritage part of orphan property and threat to one who disaffected to Allah Swt commandment. For the reason the article of 9 beckon the obligation to say the believable uttarance to talking opponent in order not to happened generation which was contaminated by false manners, if this conduct always exist, so will come the weakly generation for future. Although this sentence informed abuts the orphan, but qaulan sadidan field remain to be universal, including the way of submitting the massage to others, the is real correct expression. Because it minght be there an opportunity to misconduct from the disbelieve word, le and deception. For that reason, for clergy there no term of “ hackneyed” even if that subtimited is bitter. In this case Rasyid Ridha, giving the specification of this sentence that qaulan sadidan have to be harmony with qaulan ma`rufan method, that is subtimited through the ma`ruf way. Takking care the other feeling farther in manage how to divide of heritage. So that, all the heritage of router generation avoided from the obsession material in their life, in fect the condition have changed from spiritual to material. In submitting the mission artocle in around heritage, needed by qaulan sadidan so that the worry to the negative effect in constructing the pontential nation generation desired.
While the theme on article 70 in al-Ahzab, is god-fearing to Allah lead into a kindliness behavior and apology our sin. This sentence context gave the correction to our own performance in order to avoid the action of despise to others, always in real correct position and show the adherence in have religious service. The clergy if have impressed to hurt, others, undoubtedly the truth of which he submit will be ignore by people. To proving the correct or not the massage submitted, is much related with the adherence in doing a good deed. The adherence in doing like that is one of the ways in bringing others to Islam.
The analysis mentioned above depict that : (1) The solution of problems for the people in the global era need a tidy mission Langguage and estimate it carefully. (2) The Language of mission under Allah rule in giving the tuition and direction to others is by using the correct Language and as according to people situation and character intended. (3) In balaghah science informed by many term of sighat fil amar which is utilized in have Language with others such as : prayer,irsyad (training) iltimas (bargain), tamanni (inaccessible expectation), takhyir (be feeble to talking opponent), tahdid (threat), ibahah (ability). (4) In mission the language used in giving the truthful information as follows: a) Qaulan ma`rufan ,b) Qaulan kariman, c) Qaulan maisuran, d) Qaulan layyina, e) Qaulan balighan, f) Qaulan sadidan, (5) The precise choice in using the mission Language in submitting the truthful message of people will determine success or not of the clergy.
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